Kamis, 24 Februari 2011

CONTOH MAKALAH BHS INGGRIS / SHORT PAPER - STRUCTURE (MODAL)

Generally, Short paper in English is almost similar with in Indonesia (Makalah), Let's check it !

I. COVER-CHAPTER

SHORT PAPER

MODAL AND RELATED VERBS AND EXPRESSION

Is Made To fulfil Structure 2 Lesson Task
III. CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION

1.      The Background of problem
The modal auxiliaries in English are : can, could had better, may, might, must, ought to, shall, should, will, would.
Modal auxiliaries generally express a speaker’s attitudes of “moods”. For example, modal can express that a speaker feels something is necessary, advisable, permissible, possible, or probable. And in addition. They can convey the strength of these attitudes.

MODAL AUXILIARIES AND SIMILAR EXPRESSIONS

The role of modal auxiliaries :
  1. Modal do not take a final – s, even when the subject is he, she, or it
  2. Modals are followed immediately by the simple form of a verb.
  3. The only exception is ought, which is followed by an infinitive (to + the simple form of a verb)
a)      Modal auxiliaries :








Can do it
Could do it
Had better do it
May do it
Might do it
Must do it
Ought to do it
Shall do it
Should do it
Will do it
Would do it
 






I
You
They
We
She
He
It


b)      Similar expressions
Be able to do it
Be going to do it
Be supposed to do it
Be to do it
Have to do it
Have got to do it
Used to do it
Modal auciliaries adalah kata kerja bantu yang mempunyai arti dan melengkapi ordinarinya. Penggunaan modal auxiliary dengan tenses yang sudah kita pelajari sebelumnya sangat erat, hanya saja modal auxiliary yang kita pakai terdahulu menggunakan main adxiliary (is, am, are, do, does, have, has, was. Were, did. Had).
Sementara itu penggunaan tenses dengan modal auxiliary juga bisa kita gunakan, hanya saja kita harus berhati-hati dalam tenses, untuk itu yang pertama kita lakukan adalah memahami dan mengenal modal auxiliary terlebih dahulu.
Larangan modal :
1.      Tidak boleh ada tambahan  s/es, ed dan ing
2.      harus bertemu VI (berinficitive)
3.      tidak boleh didahulu ito
4.      tidak boleh bertemu to
5.      modal auxiliary tidak boleh bertemu dengan modal auxiliary.
Contoh salah :
1.      he cans sing every day.
2.      he can sings every day
3.      he wants to can sing every day
4.      he can to sing every day
5.      he must can sing every day.
Contoh benar :
1.      can sing every day
2.      he can sing every day
3.      he wants to be able to sing every day
4.      he can sing every day
5.      he must be able sing every day.
Modal auziliary dilihat dari makna dibagi menjadi dua (the kind of modal) :
1.      spontaneity
2.      conclusion / possibility.

1.      SPONTANITY DI BAGI MENJADI 12 :
No
Modal
Indonesia
English
Similar expression of modal
1
Can
Dapat
Ability
Be able to
2
Must
Harus
Strong obligation, strong necessity
Have to, be to
3
Used
To/would + V1
Dulu terbiasa
Past habit
Be used to Ving.
4
Dare
Berani
Bravery
Dare (to Vbi)
5
Can
Could
May
Might
Will
Would
Shall
Should
Sudikah/maukah/bolehkah
Polite request (?)
Be allowed to
6
Can
Could
May
Might
Should
Would
Shall
Sudi/mau.boleh
Permission (+)
Be allowed to
7
May
Semoga
Wishes

8
Will
Sudi/mau
Willingness
Be Willing to
9
Should/ought to
Seharusnya;a
Advisability
Be supposed to
10
Could
Sebenarnya bisa
Suggestion

11
Would rather
Lebih suka
Preference
Prefer gerund
12
Need
Perlu
Necessity obligation
Need (Vbi)

2.      Conclusion dibagi menjadi dua, yaitu :
A.    Possibility, dibagi menjadi 4
B.     Imposiblity, dibagi menjadi 4
Modal
Indonesia
Percentage
Must
Pasti
95 %
Should / ought to
Kemungkinan besar
90 %
May / might
Mungkin
50 %
Can / could
Mungkin
50 %






B.  Imposiblity
Modal
Indonesia
Percentage
Must
Pasti tidak
95 %
Could can
Tidak mungkin
99 %
Should / ought to
Kemungkinan besar tidak
90 %
May / might
Mungkin tidak
90 %

Modal auxiliaries Are followed by the tenses form
Modal
Simple present
Present continous
Simple past
Past continous
1. can
He can help me every day
Can you help me now?
He could run fast last year
He could teach me math when he was young
2. must
He must study every time
You must help me now
He had to go yesterday
He had to sleep when I left his room
3. used to / would
-
-
I used to eat every morning
-
4. dare
I dare remind him every day
He dare go now
I dared sleep alone 10 years ago
He dared disturb me when my mother was going
5. can

Could

May

Might

Will

Would


Shall

Should
-   can you help me every time ?
-   could you help me every day ?
-   may I visit you every day ?
-   might visit you every day ?
-   wih you lend me some money ?
-   would you lend me some money ?
-   shall I pay for the bill ?
-   should I pay for the bill ?



6. can

Could

May

Might

Would
Shall
Should
-   you can help me every time
-   you could help me every day ?
-   you may visit me every day ?
-   you might visit me every time “
-
-
-



7. May
May god bless you
May you be happ now ?


8. Will
Yes, I will
Yes, I Will
-
-
9. Should / Ought to
- He should be on time every day.
-  He ought to be on time every day.
- he should sleep now
- He ought to sleep now.
-      he should have every day.
-      He ought to have left us every day
-      He should have prepared dimmer when come.
-      He ought to have prepared dinner when come
10 could
He could do that work every day.
He could do that work now.
He could have done that work yesterday.
Stayed at home last week.
-      He could have done that work while he was gong the test
11. Wold rather
I. would rather stay at home every day.
I would rather be staying at home now.
i. would rather have stayed at home last week.
-      I would rather have been staying at home when he asked me to go.

12. Need
He need take rest every time.
He need take a rest now
He need have taken a rest yesterday.
He need have taken a rest when he felt tired yesterday.


Modal
Simple present
Present continous
Simple past
Past continous
1. can
He has been able to finish his work.
He has been able to finish his work.
He had been able to finish his work
He had been able to finish his work
2. must
He has had to finish his work
He has had to  finish his work
He had had to finish his work
He had had to finish his work
3. Used to/would
-
-
he had been used to finish his work
He had been used to finish his work
4. dare
He has dared to finish his work
He has dared to finish his work
He had dared to finis his work
He had dared to finish his work
5.
-
-
-
-
6.
-
-
-
-
7.
-
-
-
-
8. will
He has been willing to finish his work
He has been willing to finish his work
He had been willing to finish his work
He had been willing to finish his work
9.
-
-
-
-
10.
-
-
-
-
11.
-
-
-
-
12.
-
-
-
-

Conclusion (possitility / impossibility)
Modal
Simple present
Present continous
Simple past
Past continous
Must
He must study hard every day
He must be studying hard now.
He must have studied hard last week
He must have been studying hard when I come.
Can / could
He can / could do his activities every day.
He can / could be doing his activities now.
He can / could have done his activities yesterday.
He can / could have been doing his activities when I came yesterday.
Should / ought to
He should / ought not to study hard every day.
He should / ought to be studying hard now.
He should/ought to have studied hard yesterday.
He should / ought to have been studying hard when I came.
May / might
He may / might do his activity every day.
He may / might be doing his activity now.
He may / might have done his adtivity yesterday.
He may / might have been doing his activity when I came yesterday.

The function of modal
From
Kind of modal
Meaning
Tense
Possibility
Must
Pasti
Ps/Pr
Should
Ought to
Kemungkinan besar
Ps/Pr
May
Might
Could
Can


Impossibility
Can’t
Couldn’t
Tidak mungkin
Ps/Pr
Mayn’t
Mightn’t


Mungkin tidak
Ps/Pr
Ability
Can
Could
Be (was, Were, Is. Am. Are)
Able to
Bisa / Dapat
-Pr
-Ps
-Ps
-Pr
Wishes
May
May + S + V1
Semoga
- Ft
Necessity
(+) must
(+) have to
(-) needn’t
Harus

Tidak harus
Ps/Pr/I
Advisability
Should
Ought to
Hed better
Seharusnya
( 1 Nashiat)
Lebih baih
- Ps/Pr
Suggestion
Could
Seharusnya
Ps/Pr/I
Habitual action
Used to
Would
Dulu terbiasa
Ps
Probilition
Musn’t
Tidak boleh (jangan)
-Pr/F
Preference
Would rather
Lebih suka
Ps/Pr/F
Request
Could, can
May, might Will, would shall
Bisakah
Bolehkan
Maukah
Dapatkah
Pr/I
Permission
Could, can May, Might
Bisakah
Bolehkah
- Pr/I
Espection
Be To
Be Supposed to
Harus
Seharusnya
Ps/Pr/F

Semi Modal
Need
Need
Need
As Subjed
As verb
As modal
Kebutuhan
Membutuhkan
Butuh
Dare
Dare
Dare
As subject
As verb
As modal
Pantangan
Menantang
Berani
Can
Can
Can
As subject
As verb
As modal
Kaleng
Mengalengi
Dapat/bisa

CLOSING
CONCLUSION
Ø  Modal Auxiliary is the auxiliary which has meaning and complete the ordinary.
Ø  The Kinds of modal auxiliaries in English are : can, could, had better, may, might, must, ought to, shall, should, will, would.
Ø  The functions of modal auxiliaries are :
o   Possibility (kemungkinan)
o   Impossibility (ketidak mungkinan)
o   Ability (kemampuan)
o   Wishes (doa)
o   Necessity (keharusan)
o   Advisability (anjuran)
o   Suggestion (saran)
o   Habitual past (kebiasaan/rutinitas)
o   Prohibition (larangan)
o   Preference (preferensi/lebih suka)
o   Request (permintaan/permohonan)
o   Permission (permohonan izin)
o   Espeetation (harapan)

SUGGESTION
Modal auxiliary is very important not only in grammar (structure) but also in speaking. For example if we want to write the text of course we need modal auxiliary which is used for completing the ordinary.
So that way we must be able to master and understand the meaning of modal auxiliaries, the kinds of modal auxiliaries and the functions of modal auxiliaries, for making the text and how to speak English well and fruenfly.
Because in eghlish there are two choices between speaking and grammatical so we must try to combine both of them. May these explainings can be useful in our study and Allah SWT oless us good luck for you. 


IV. BIBLIOGRAPHY CHAPTER

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Azer, Betty S. 1989. Understanding and Using English grammar (second edition). New Jersey : prentice hall, inc.
____________ Understanding and Using English grammar (third Edition). New Jersey : prentice Hall, inc.
Echols, John M. And Hasan Shadily. 1989. Kamus Indonesia Inggris, Jakarta : Gramedia.
Murphy, R. 1985. English Grammar in Use, Combridge : Combridge University Press.
Purwati, M. 2005. Engligh for a better life, Bandung : Pakar Raya.
Wijaya. 1989. Fitrah Book (grammar, speaking and vocabularies). Lamongan : Own Published.



 

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